Bone Graft for Dental Implant Placement
Bone grafting is necessary in cases when the jawbone quality or structure is not enough to support the successful placement of dental implants. The jawbone eventually thins or deteriorates after tooth loss, and the stimulation provided by the lost natural tooth roots are not replaced.
- The bone graft material can come from different sources.
- When the bone comes from the patient’s own body, it is called a bone autograft (or autogenous bone graft); this is considered to be the safest bone graft material since there is a very low risk of the material being rejected by the own body.
- Allografts (or allograft bone), on the other hand, are bone graft material that comes from another donor.
Bone Block Grafting
Bone block grafting is used to improve the loss of a significant amount of bone tissue, as part of the preparation for a dental implant treatment. The block of bone used in this procedure is usually harvested from the chin area or from the lower jaw part where the third molars were previously located.
A small block of bone measuring approximately 1 square cm. is harvested, and then transferred to the area where the jawbone needs to be augmented. The area is closed with screws, collagen membrane, and bovine particulate bone for a healing period usually lasting for four months so the grafted material can integrate with the surrounding tissue, before the implants can be attached to teeth replacements.
Allograft and Autograft Bone Materials
are added to the jawbone area that needs to be augmented, so that dental implants can have the good bone quality needed for successful implant placement. The grafting material is given enough time to heal and integrate with the surrounding bone tissue, before the implant loading procedure.
Demineralised Bone as a Bone Graft Substitute
Demineralised bone (or demineralised bone matrix) is used as a bone graft substitute to allografts or autografts. This bone graft substitute is produced from processing allograft bone, and the extraction of proteins, collagen, and other growth factors. DBM or demineralised bone matrix can be injected using a syringe, in the form of a gel, crushed granules, chips, powder, or putty.
- The process that dried demineralised bone goes through is extensive, which results to a greatly reduced risk of transmitting diseases.
- The dried demineralised bone is added to the jawbone site that needs to be improved prior to the placement of the dental implants.
- The bone graft material is then covered with a collagen membrane called CollaTape for protection, and to encourage the integration of the graft material with the surrounding bone tissue.